Maternal and child health from a human rights perspective: the Indian scenario and nuns as community health enablers
All women need access to antenatal care in pregnancy, skilled care during childbirth, and care and support in the weeks after childbirth. This discussion tries to look into the life context of maternal and child health and the health scenario for women/girl children in general in India from the perspective of Human Rights. Currently, most of the public and private health experts and organizations do not talk and act on the human rights perspective of health service delivery. Reversely, only a very few rights-based organizations advocate directly the right to health of the marginalized. Within the framework of a rights-based approach, the right to (Maternal) Health on practical terms means Availability, Accessibility, Acceptability and Quality. Concluding, in the background of the Catholic Health Association of India (CHAI), the discussion also focuses on how the nun nurses play their role as “Community Health Enablers” to improve the situation.
2. UN. CESCR General Comment No. 14: The Right to the Highest Attainable Standard of Health (Art. 12). Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. Geneva: United Nations; [Adopted on 11 May 2000, cited 2016 Jul 25]. Available from: http://www.refworld.org/pdfid/4538838d0.pdf
3. UN. Human Rights-Based Approach to Health. Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. Geneva: United Nations and World Health Organization; [cited 2016 Jul 25]. Available from: http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Issues/ESCR/Health/HRBA_HealthInformationSheet.pdf
4. Kundan Pandey. Delivering Safety. Down to Earth. 2014 April 30; [cited 2016 Jul 25]. Available from: http://www.downtoearth.org.in/coverage/delivering-safety-44037
5. Indra Mani Mishra. Maternal and Child Health Programme. PPT in Slideshare.net. 2015 March 2015; [cited 2016 Jul 25]. Available from: http://www.slideshare.net/INDRAMANIMISHRA/maternal-and-child-health-programme-46306252?utm_source=slideshow02&utm_medium=ssemail&utm_campaign=share_slideshow_loggedout
6. Press Information Bureau. Achievements under Millennium Development Goals. New Delhi: Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Govt. of India, 2015 July 2014; [cited 2016 Jul 25]. Available from: http://pib.nic.in/newsite/PrintRelease.aspx?relid=123669
7. UNICEF India. Maternal Health. New Delhi: United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund – India; [cited 2016 Jul 25]. Available from: http://unicef.in/Whatwedo/1/Maternal-Health#sthash.vQi20Z2e.dpuf . See also, for various steps taken by the Govt. of India in improving maternal and child health services, Press Information Bureau – Government of India. Achievements under Millennium Development Goals.
8. National Institute of Public Cooperation and Child Development. An Analysis of Levels and Trends in Maternal Health and Maternal Mortality Ratio in India. New Delhi: 2015 June 16; [cited 2016 Jul 25]. Available from: http://nipccd.nic.in/reports/mhmm.pdf
9. Press Trust of India. 1.26 Million Children Under 5 Die In India Every Year, Admits Government. New Delhi: NDTV. Every Life Counts. 2016 April 26; [cited 2016 Jul 25]. Available from: http://everylifecounts.ndtv.com/1-26-million-children-under-5-die-in-india-every-year-admits-government-2506
10. AnuradhaMascarenhas. India missed 2015 child mortality target: Lancet report. Indian Express. 2015 September 9; [cited 2016 Jul 25]. Available from: http://indianexpress.com/article/india/india-others/india-missed-2015-child-mortality-target-says-lancet-report/#sthash.Kbg1ic7F.dpuf
11. Reema Nagarajan. The labour room bullies. The Times of India. 2015 November 15; [cited 2016 Jul 25]. Available from: http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/The-labour-room-bullies/articleshow/49791192.cms
12. UNICEF India. Child Marriage. New Delhi: United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund – India; [cited 2016 Jul 25]. Available from: http://unicef.in/Whatwedo/30/Child-Marriage
13. Social Statistics Division. Children in India 2012. New Delhi: Central Statistics Office, Ministry of statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of India, 2012 September; [cited 2016 Jul 25]. Available from: http://mospi.nic.in/Mospi_New/upload/Children_in_India_2012.pdf
14. Rita Banerji . Female Genocide in India and the 50 Million Missing Campaign.
Intersections: Gender and Sexuality in Asia and the Pacific. Issue 22, 2009 October; [cited 2016 Jul 25]. Available from: http://intersections.anu.edu.au/issue22/banerji.htm
15. Katie J.M. Baker. Sex Selective Abortion Isn't the Real Reason Why India Is the Worst Country for Women. JAZEBEL. 2012 June 14; [cited 2016 Jul 25]. Available from: http://jezebel.com/5918361/sex-selective-abortion-isnt-the-real-reason-why-india-is-the-worst-country-for-women
16. Press Information Bureau. Adolescent Anaemia. New Delhi: Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Govt. of India, 2013 March 2014; [cited 2016 Jul 25]. Available from: http://pib.nic.in/newsite/PrintRelease.aspx?relid=93467
17. CLRA and Oxfam India. The Human Impact of Climate Change in India. Booklet. New Delhi: Centre for Legislative Research and Advocacy & Oxfam India [cited 2016 Jul 25]. Available from: http://www.clraindia.org/admin/gallery/documents/03032016115932-0Human%20Impact%20of%20Climate%20Change%20in%20India%20(Booklet).pdf.
18. WHO. Health and the environment: addressing the health impact of air pollution. Geneva: Geneva: Sixty-Eighth World Health Assembly (WHA),World Health Organization, 2015 April 10; [cited 2016 Jul 25]. Available from: http://apps.who.int/gb/ebwha/pdf_files/WHA68/A68_18-en.pdf
19. NACO. India HIV Estimations 2015: Technical Report. New Delhi: National AIDS Control Organisation and National Institute of Medical Statistics, ICMR, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India; [cited 2016 Jul 25]. Available from: http://naco.gov.in/upload/2015%20MSLNS/HSS/India%20HIV%20Estimations%202015.pdf
20. UN. The HIV/AIDS pandemic and its gender implications: Report of the Expert Group Meeting. New York: Division for the Advancement of Women Department for Economic and Social Affairs (DESA), United Nations, 2000 November 13-17; [cited 2016 Jul 25]. Available from: www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/csw/hivaids/report.pdf
21. Menaka Rao. The Gendered Delay in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Tuberculosis Patients in India. The Karavan. A Journal of Politics and Culture. 2015 September 23; [cited 2016 Jul 25]. Available from: http://www.caravanmagazine.in/vantage/gendered-delay-diagnosing-tuberculosis-patients
22. WHO. A human rights approach to TB: Stop TB Guidelines for Social Mobilization. 2001. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2001; [cited 2016 Jul 25]. Available from: http://www.who.int/hhr/information/A%20Human%20Rights%20Approach%20to%20Tuberculosis.pdf
23. UN. Some Facts about Persons with Disabilities. Enable. New York: United Nations, 2006 August 14-25; [cited 2016 Jul 25]. Available from: http://www.un.org/disabilities/convention/pdfs/factsheet.pdf
24. Anu Kumar P, Inder D and Sharma N. Surrogacy and women's right to health in India: Issues and perspective. Indian Journal of Public Health. 2013 July 15; 57 (2): 65-70; [cited 2016 Jul 25]. Available from: http://www.ijph.in/article.asp?issn=0019-557X;year=2013;volume=57;issue=2;spage=65;epage=70;aulast=Anu%2C
25. Gita Aravamudan. Burden of Surrogacy. The Hindu. 2015 May 30; [cited 2016 Jul 25]. Available from: http://www.thehindu.com/features/magazine/burden-of-surrogacy/article7264366.ece
26. WHO. Maternal mental health and child survival, health and development in resource-constrained settings: essential for achieving the Millennium Development Goals. Geneva: World Health Organization; [cited 2016 Jul 25]. Available from: http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/supplementary/1752-4458-5-2-S1.PDF
27. Maria Muzik and StefanaBorovska. Perinatal depression: implications for child mental health. Mental Health Family Medicine. 2010 December; 7(4): 239–247; [cited 2016 Jul 25]. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3083253/
28. Emily C. Baron, Charlotte Hanlon and Co. Maternal mental health in primary care in five low- and middle-income countries: a situational analysis. MC Health Services Research BioMed Central (BMC) Health Services Research. 2016 February 16; [cited 2016 Jul 25]. Available from: http://bmchealthservres.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12913-016-1291-z
29. NCPCR. Status of Children in 14-18 Years: Review of Policy, Programme and Legislative Framework. New Delhi: National Commission for Protection of Child Rights, The Ministry of Health & Family Affairs, Govt. of India, 2012-2013; [cited 2016 Jul 25]. Available from: http://ncpcr.gov.in/view_file.php?fid=466
30. Ministry of Health & Family Affairs. Study on Child Abuse – India. New Delhi: Ministry of Health & Family Affairs, Govt. of India, 2007; [cited 2016 Jul 25]. Available from: http://www.indianet.nl/pdf/childabuseIndia.pdf
31. Shastri P C. Promotion and prevention in child mental health. Indian Journal of Psychiatry. 2009 April – June; 51(2): 88–95; [cited 2016 Jul 25]. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2755174/
32. Ravi Narayan. Universal health care in India: Missing core determinants. The Lancet. 2011 January 11; 377 (9769): 883-885; [cited 2016 Jul 25]. Available from: http://thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(10)62045-4/fulltext
33. Census 2011. Literacy rate of India. New Delhi: Office of the Registrar General, Ministry of Home Affairs, Govt. of India; [cited 2016 Jul 25]. Available from: http://www.census2011.co.in/literacy.php
34. Garima Jain and Vikram Bisen. Female Literacy & Its Relevance with Maternal and Infant Mortality Rates. International Journal of Management. 2012 May – August; 3(2): 65-79; [cited 2016 Jul 25]. Available from: http://www.iaeme.com/MasterAdmin/UploadFolder/FEMALE%20LITERACY.pdf
35. Carol Vlassoff. Gender Differences in Determinants and Consequences of Health and Illness. Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition (JHPN). 2007 March; 25(1): 47–61; [cited 2016 Jul 25]. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3013263/
36. Rachel Taylor, Kayleen Hartman, Paula Avila Guillen and Ana Ayala. Human Rights Maternal Health and Human Rights: National and Global Perspectives. 2012 Samuel Dash Conference. New Jersey: Human Rights Institute, George Town Law; 2012; cited 2016 Jul 25]. Available from: https://www.law.georgetown.edu/academics/centers-institutes/human-rights-institute/events/upload/2012-Maternal-Health-and-Human-Rights-Outcome-Document.pdf
37. Dilip T R. Extent of Inequity in Access to Health Care Services in India. In: Leena Gangolli, Ravi Duggal and Abhay Shukla, editors. Review of Health Care in India. Mumbai: Centre for Enquiry into Health and Allied Themes (CEHAT); 2005: 247-68; [cited 2016 Jul 25]. Available from: http://www.cehat.org/publications/PDf%20files/r51.pdf
38. Pope John XXIII. Pacem in Terris. Encyclical. Vatican: Libreria Editrice Vaticana; 1963 April 11: § 9 & 11; [cited 2016 Jul 25]. Available from: http://w2.vatican.va/content/john-xxiii/en/encyclicals/documents/hf_j-xxiii_enc_11041963_pacem.html
39. UN. Universal Declaration of Human Rights. New York: General Assembly resolution 217 A, United Nations; 1948 December 10; [cited 2016 Jul 25]. Available from: http://www.un.org/en/universal-declaration-human-rights/
40. Neetu Chandra Sharma. India's health woes: Budget for the National Health Mission remains stagnated at Rs.19,000 crore. India Today. 2016 March 2; [cited 2016 Jul 25]. Available from: http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/indias-health-woes-budget-for-the-national-health-mission-remains-stagnated-at-rs-19-000-crore/1/609824.html
41. DNA. '3 A'S (Availability, Affordability, and Assurance) must for improving Healthcare in India'. Daily News and Analysis (DNA). 2013 September 21; [cited 2016 Jul 25]. Available from: http://www.dnaindia.com/health/1891984/report-3-a-s-availability-affordability-and-assurance-must-for-improving-healthcare-in-in
42. Renu Khanna. Understanding Maternal Health from a Gender and Rights Perspective: A Training Module for Advocates and Practitioners. Kancheepuram, Tamil Nadu: CommonHealth; 2013 August; [cited 2016 Jul 25]. Available from: http://www.sahaj.org.in/uploads/4/5/2/5/45251491/understanding_maternal_health_from_a_gender_and_rights_perspective.pdf
43. HealthBridge.ca [Internet]. Gender Equality, Reproductive, Maternal, Newborn & Child Health. Ottawa: HealthBridge, [updated 2016 July 26; cited 2016 July 26]. Available from: http://healthbridge.ca/programs/reproductive-maternal-and-child-health
44. For the information below on CHAI, I am indebted to Chai-India.org [Internet]. Secunderabad: The Catholic Health Association of India (CHAI), [updated 2016 July; cited 2016 July 25]. Available from: http://chai-india.org
45. Pope Francis. Evangelii Gaudium. Apostolic Exhortation. Vatican: Libreria Editrice Vaticana; 1963 April 11: § 49; [cited 2016 Jul 25]. Available from: http://w2.vatican.va/content/francesco/en/apost_exhortations/documents/papa-francesco_esortazione-ap_20131124_evangelii-gaudium.html#The_joy_of_the_gospel
46. George D. O’Clock. Isaiah’s Leper. New York: iUniverse; 2005: p.24; [cited 2016 Jul 25]. Available from: https://www.google.co.in/search?tbo=p&tbm=bks&q=isbn:0595351417
47. WHO. World health statistics 2016: monitoring health for SDGs. Geneva: World Health Organization; [cited 2016 Sep 23]. Available from: http://www.who.int/gho/publications/world_health_statistics/2016/en/
48. Press Trust of India (PTI). Five women die every hour in India during childbirth: WHO. Economic Times. 2016 June 16; [cited 2016 Jul 25]. Available from: http://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/2016-06-16/news/73818480_1_maternal-deaths-childbirth-whs
49. Campbell OMR, Calvert C, Testa A, Strehlow M, Benova L. Keyes E, et al. The scale, scope, coverage, and capability of childbirth care. The Lancet. Sept 2016; 388 (10056): 2193 – 2208. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31528-8
50. Miller S, Abalos E, Chamillard M, Clapponi A, Colaci D, Commandé, et al. Beyond too little, too late and too much, too soon: a pathway towards evidence-based, respectful maternity care worldwide. The Lancet. Oct 2016; 388 (10056): 2176-2192. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31472-6
51. The Lancet. Maternal health: an executive summary for The Lancet’s Series. The Lancet Series. Maternal Health 2016. 2016 September 15; [Cited 2016 Oct 15]. Available from: http://www.thelancet.com/pb/assets/raw/Lancet/stories/series/maternal-health-2016/mathealth2016-exec-summ.pdf
52. National Health Mission (NHM). Child Health. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. Govt. of India. Updated on 2015 March 2;[Cited 2016 Nov 1].
Available from: http://nrhm.gov.in/nrhm-components/rmnch-a/child-health-immunization.html
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Christian Journal for Global Health applies the Creative Commons Attribution License to all articles that we publish. Under this license, authors retain ownership of copyright for their articles or they can transfer copyright to their institution, but authors allow anyone without permission to copy, distribute, transmit, and/or adapt articles, even for commercial purposes so long as the original authors and Christian Journal for Global Health are appropriately cited.Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.