The Fire Is Coming: An HIV-Prevention Intervention Contextualized To The Maasai People Of Tanzania
“The Fire is Coming” film is an innovative HIV-prevention intervention contextualized to the Maasai people of Tanzania through use of a traditional Maasai story. The intervention was developed and implemented in partnership with Maasai Pastoralists for Education and Development (MAPED). Although there have been numerous Knowledge-Attitude-Practice (KAP) surveys conducted among the Maasai, this is the first control-group comparison study designed to measure the effectiveness of an HIV-prevention intervention contextualized specifically to the Maasai people of Tanzania. We will first discuss the background and context in which the intervention was developed and methods used to develop the intervention. We will then discuss the evaluation methods, results, and implications of a retrospective Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices (KAP) two-village comparison survey (n=200) for “The Fire is Coming” HIV-prevention intervention among Maasai people. Results: There was a significant effect for HIV-related attitudes, t(16) = 2.77, p <0.05, regarding willingness to care for an HIV infected person, willingness to be tested for HIV, self-efficacy toward HIV-prevention, married women’s ability to use condoms, unmarried girls’ ability to refuse high-risk sexual behaviors, married men’s ability to use condoms, and married men’s ability to limit sex to their spouses. There was a significant effect for HIV-related behavior changes, t(8) = 2.89, p <0.05, with reported family decisions made, esoto (the ritualized sexual initiation of pre-pubescent girls) stopped, sexual behaviors changed, blade-sharing stopped, and other traditional custom changes reported. Although knowledge rates were often higher in the intervention area than in the comparison area, there was no significant difference in HIV-related knowledge, t(12)=1.85, p >0.05. Implications: Belief in one’s ability to do something is often the pivotal point for behavior change. The results of the survey denote a highly effective intervention in changing HIV-related attitudes and behaviors. It is promising for replication among other Maasai communities and for adaptation with indigenous people groups in other regions.
Coast, E. (2001). Maasai Demography. Ph.D. thesis, University of London.
Coast, E. (2002). October 17, 2002). HIV/AIDS in Ngorongoro District (Report for Ereto-NPP). Lion House, Ditchling Common Industrial Estate Hassocks, West Sussex, BN6 8SL, England: ITAD.
Coast, E. (2006). Local understandings of, and responses to, HIV: Rural-urban migrants in Tanzania. Social Science and Medicine, 63 (4), 1000-1010. Retrieved from http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/archive/0000817
Coast, E. (2007). Wasting Semen: Context and Condom Use among the Maasai. Culture, Health & Sexuality, 9(4), 387-401.
DePoy, E., & Gitlin, L. N. (2005). Introduction to Research: Understanding and Applying Multiple Strategies (3 Ed.). St. Louis, Missouri: Elsevier Mosby.
Kulzer, J. L. (2002). Socio-Cultural Norms and Acceptability of HIV/AIDS Prevention Strategies in the Simanjiro District of Tanzania Journal of Public and International Affairs-Princeton, 13, 82-103.
Maddux. J. (2000) Self-Efficacy: The Power of Believing You Can. In Handbook of Positive Psychology. New York: Oxford University Press. Snyder, C. R., & Lopez, S. J. (Eds.).
May, A. (2003, January 23). Maasai Migrations: Implications for HIV/AIDS and Social Change in Tanzania (Institute of Behavioral Science). Boulder, Colorado.
May, A., & Ole Ikayo, F. (2007). Wearing Illkarash: Narratives of Image, Identity and Change among Maasai Labour Migrants in Tanzania. In Development and Change (pp. 275-298). 9600 Garsington Road, Oxford OX4 2DQ, UK and 350 Main St., Malden, MA 02148, USA: Blackwell Publishing.
Mbugua, T. (2007). The Maasai: Preserving Culture and Protecting Girls. AIDSLink, 101.
Peter, C. M. (2007). Human Rights of Indigenous Minorities in Tanzania and the Courts of Law. International Journal on Minority and Group Rights, 14, 455–487.
Tanzania Commission for AIDS (TACAIDS) (2008). Tanzania HIV/AIDS and Malaria Indicator Survey. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: National Bureau of Statistics (NBS).
United Nations. (2003). Indicators for Monitoring the Millennium Development Goals: Definitions, Rationale, Concepts, and Sources. New York: United Nations Publication.
United Nations. (2006). Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues (Fifth Session), Special Theme: The Millennium Development Goals, and Indigenous Peoples- Redefining the Goals (E/C.10/2006/6/Add.10). Retrieved from: unaidsindigineousissuespaper_en .pdf.
Christian Journal for Global Health applies the Creative Commons Attribution License to all articles that we publish. Under this license, authors retain ownership of copyright for their articles or they can transfer copyright to their institution, but authors allow anyone without permission to copy, distribute, transmit, and/or adapt articles, even for commercial purposes so long as the original authors and Christian Journal for Global Health are appropriately cited.Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.