Prevalence of Poor Sleep Quality and Associated Factors Among the Elderly in Amirkola City, Iran
Keywords:aging, sleep quality, prevalence, sleep
Background & Aims: One of the problems affecting elderly people's quality of life is sleep problems which has an adverse impact on their social, occupational and other activities. This study was conducted aiming to determine the prevalence of poor sleep quality among the elderly in …, northern Iran.
Methods: This cross-sectional study is part of the second phase of … Health and Ageing Project (…HAP) which is a cohort study that has been conducted on all elderly people aged 60 and over in … city, north of Iran since 2011. The sleep quality and its related factors were assessed through Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI-P) and interviews, respectively.
Results: Of the 1675 elderly people, 914 (54.6%) were male and 761 (45.4%) were female, among them 714 (42.6%) had poor sleep quality. The prevalence of poor sleep quality in women and men was 56.9% and 30.7%, respectively (p <0.001). Poor sleep quality was significantly more frequent among unmarried elderly (50.4%) (p = 0.004), ones with lower education level (p<0.001), and individuals who were living alone (51.3%)(p<0.001) and those with more chronic disease (p<0.001), relative to other groups. Logistic regression analysis revealed that sex, (OR = 2.34, 95% CI (2.85-95.95)) and chronic diseases (OR=4.48, 95% CI (2.02-9.93)) had the most important roles poor sleep quality.
Conclusion: This study showed relatively high prevalence of poor sleep quality in elderly people, particularly among females. So sleep quality inquiry of the elderly seems pivotal in routine public health assessments by physicians and health care providers.
Key Words: Aging, Sleep quality, Prevalence, Sleep
Brandão GS, Camelier FWR, Sampaio AAC, Brandão GS, Silva AS, Gomes GSBF, et al. Association of sleep quality with excessive daytime somnolence and quality of life of elderlies of community. Multidiscip Resp Med. 2018;13:8. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40248-018-0120-0
Zaidel C, Musich S, Karl J, Kraemer S, Yeh CS. Psychosocial factors associated with sleep quality and duration among older adults with chronic pain. Popul Health Manag. 2021 Feb 1;24(1):101-9. https://doi.org/10.1089/pop.2019.0165
What is Good Quality Sleep [Internet]? National Sleep Foundation 2019 [cited 2019 Jul 22]. Available from: https://www.sleepfoundation.org/press-release/what-good-quality-sleep
LeBlanc M, Mérette C, Savard J, Ivers H, Baillargeon L, Morin CM. Incidence and risk factors of insomnia in a population-based sample. Sleep. 2009;32(8):1027. https://doi.org/10.1093/sleep/32.8.1027
Li J, Yao Y-s, Dong Q, Dong Y-h, Liu J-j, Yang L-s, et al. Characterization and factors associated with sleep quality among rural elderly in China. Arch Gerontol Geriat. 2013;56:237-43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.archger.2012.08.002
Gulia KK, Kumar VM. Sleep disorders in the elderly: a growing challenge. Psychogeriatrics. 2018;18:155-65. https://doi.org/10.1111/psyg.12319
Chen JH, Lauderdale DS, Waite LJ. Social participation and older adults' sleep. Soc Sci Med. 2016 Jan 1;149:164-73. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2015.11.045
Ahmadi S, Khankeh H, Mohammadi F, Khoshknab F, Reza Soltani P. The effect of sleep restriction treatment on quality of sleep in the elders [Internet]. Iran J Ageing. 2010;5:1-.15. Available from: http://salmandj.uswr.ac.ir/article-1-282-en.html
Sayer AA, Syddall H, Martin H, Patel H, Baylis D, Cooper C. The developmental origins of sarcopenia. J Nutr Health Aging. 2008;12:427. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02982703
Buysse DJ. Sleep health: can we define it? Does it matter? Sleep. 2014;37(1):9-17. https://doi.org/10.5665/sleep.3298
Colten HR, Altevogt BM, eds. Sleep disorders and sleep deprivation: an unmet Public Health Problem [Internet]. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 2006. Available from: http://www.nap.edu/catalog/11617.html
MacLeod S, Musich S, Kraemer S, Wicker E. Practical non-pharmacological intervention approaches for sleep problems among older adults. Geriatr Nurs. 2018;39:506-12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gerinurse.2018.02.002
Li J, Vitiello MV, Gooneratne NS. Sleep in normal aging. Sleep Med Clinics. 2018;13:1-11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsmc.2017.09.001
Sagayadevan V, Abdin E, Binte Shafie S, Jeyagurunathan A, Sambasivam R, Zhang Y, et al. Prevalence and correlates of sleep problems among elderly Singaporeans. Psychogeriatrics. 2017;17:43-51. https://doi.org/10.1111/psyg.12190
Wang P, Song L, Wang K, Han X, Cong L, Wang Y, Zhang L, et al. Prevalence and associated factors of poor sleep quality among Chinese older adults living in a rural area: a population-based study. Aging Clin Exp Research. 2020 Jan;32(1):125-31. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40520-019-01171-0
Zhu X, Hu Z, Nie Y, Zhu T, Chiwanda Kaminga A, Yu Y, et al. The prevalence of poor sleep quality and associated risk factors among Chinese elderly adults in nursing homes: a cross-sectional study. PloS one. 2020 May 15;15(5):e0232834. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0232834
Ravanipour M, Salehi S, Taleghani F, Abedi HA. Elderly self-management: a qualitative study. Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res. 2010;15:60. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3093174/
Bahrami M, Dehdashti A, Karami M. A survey on sleep quality in elderly people living in a nursing home in Damghan city in 2017: a short report [Internet]. J Rafsanjan Univers Med Sci. 2017;16:581-90. Available from: http://journal.rums.ac.ir/article-1-3779-en.html
Sheikhy L. Evaluation the status of sleep quality in elderly people in Kermanshah city. Rehab Med. 2015;3:4. https://doi.org/10.22037/JRM.2014.1100068
Rezaei B, Shooshtarizadeh S. Factors related to sleep quality among elderly residing at Isfahan nursing homes [Internet]. Q J Geriat Nurs. 2016;2:37-49. http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3369315
Hosseini SR, Cumming RG, Kheirkhah F, Nooreddini H, Baiani M, Mikaniki E, et al. Cohort profile: the Amirkola health and ageing project (AHAP). Int J Epidemiol. 2014;43:1393-400. https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyt089
Buysse DJ, Reynolds III CF, Monk TH, Berman SR, Kupfer DJ. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index: a new instrument for psychiatric practice and research. Psych Res. 1989;28:193-213. https://doi.org/10.1016/0165-1781(89)90047-4
Moghaddam JF, Nakhaee N, Sheibani V, Garrusi B, Amirkafi A. Reliability and validity of the Persian version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI-P). Sleep Breath. 2012;16:79-82. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11325-010-0478-5
Luo J, Zhu G, Zhao Q, Guo Q, Meng H, Hong Z, et al. Prevalence and risk factors of poor sleep quality among Chinese elderly in an urban community: results from the Shanghai aging study. PloS one. 2013;8:e81261. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0081261
Thichumpa W, Howteerakul N, Suwannapong N, Tantrakul V. Sleep quality and associated factors among the elderly living in rural Chiang Rai, Northern Thailand. Epidemiol Health. 2018;40, e2018018. https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2018018
Razali R, Ariffin J, Aziz AFA, Puteh SEW, Wahab S, Daud TIM. Sleep quality and psychosocial correlates among elderly attendees of an urban primary care centre in Malaysia. Neurol Asia. 2016;21: 265-73.
Gouthaman R, Devi R. Descriptive study on sleep quality and its associated factors among elderly in urban population: Chidambaram. Int J Commun Med Public Health. 2019;6:1999-2003.
Daglar G, Pinar SE, Sabanciogullari S, Kav S. Sleep quality in the elderly either living at home or in a nursing home. Aust J Adv Nurs. 2014;31:6.
Berhanu H, Mossie A, Tadesse S, Geleta D. Prevalence and associated factors of sleep quality among adults in Jimma town, Southwest Ethiopia: a community-based cross-sectional study. Sleep Disorders. 2018;2018. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/8342328
Wang P, Song L, Wang K, Han X, Cong L, Wang Y, et al. Prevalence and associated factors of poor sleep quality among Chinese older adults living in a rural area: a population-based study. Aging Clin Exp Research. 2019:1-7. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40520-019-01171-0
Aliabadi S, Moodi M, Miri MR, Tahergorabi Z, Mohammadi R. Sleep quality and its contributing factors among elderly people: a descriptive-analytical study [Internet]. Modern Care J. 2017 Jan;14:e64493. Available from: https://doi.org/10.5812/modernc.64493
Wu W, Wang W, Dong Z, Xie Y, Gu Y, Zhang Y, et al. Sleep quality and its associated factors among low-income adults in a rural area of China: a population-based study. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018;15:2055. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15092055.
Dehghankar L, Ghorbani A, Yekefallah L, Hajkarimbaba M, Rostampour A. Association of sleep quality with socio-demographic characteristics in elderly referred to health centers in Qazvin, Iran. Sleep Hypnosis. 2018;20:227-32. https://doi.org/10.5350/Sleep.Hypn.2017.19.0154
Kara B, Tenekeci EG. Sleep quality and associated factors in older Turkish adults with hypertension: a pilot study. J Transcult Nurs. 2017;28:296-305. https://doi.org/10.1177/1043659615623330
Dong X, Wang Y, Chen Y, Wang X, Zhu J, Wang N, et al. Poor sleep quality and influencing factors among rural adults in Deqing, China. Sleep Breath. 2018;22:1213-20. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11325-018-1685-8
Leblanc M-F, Desjardins S, Desgagné A. Sleep problems in anxious and depressive older adults [Internet]. Psych Res Behav Manag. 2015;8:161. https://doi.org/10.2147/PRBM.S80642
Orff HJ, Meliska CJ, Martinez LF, Parry BL. The influence of sex and gonadal hormones on sleep disorders [Internet]. Chrono Physiol Ther. 2014;4:15-25. https://doi.org/10.2147/CPT.S44667
Suzuki K, Miyamoto M, Hirata K. Sleep disorders in the elderly: diagnosis and management. J Gen Fam Med. 2017;18:61-71. https://doi.org/10.1002/jgf2.27
Garcia JM, Merriam GR, Kargi AY. Growth hormone in aging [Internet]. Endotext, 2019 Oct 7. Available from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25905386/
Sattler FR. Growth hormone in the aging male. best practice & research. Clin Endocrin Metabol. 2013 Aug 1;27(4):541-55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beem.2013.05.003
Blackman MR. Age-related alterations in sleep quality and neuroendocrine function: interrelationships and implications. JAMA. 2000;284:879-81. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.284.7.879.
Hassan NA, Gunaid AA, El-Khally FM, Murray-Lyon IM. The effect of chewing Khat leaves on human mood. Saudi Med J. 2002;23:850-3.
Jackson C, Gaston S, Liu R, Mukamal K, Rimm E. The relationship between alcohol drinking patterns and sleep duration among black and white men and women in the United States. Int J Env Res Public Health. 2018;15:557. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15030557
Galobardes B, Shaw M, Lawlor DA, Lynch JW, Smith GD. Indicators of socioeconomic position (part 1). J Epidemiol Commun Health. 2006;60:7-12. https://doi.org/10.1136/jech.2004.023531
Kumari R, Gupta RK, Langer B, Singh P, Akhtar N. Insomnia and its associated factors: a cross-sectional study in rural adults of North India. Int J Med Sci Public Health. 2018;7:800-5. https://doi.org/10.5455/ijmsph.2018.0618015062018001
Pandi-Perumal S, Verster J, Monti J, Langer S. Sleep disorders: diagnosis and therapeutics: Taylor & Francis US; 2008. https://doi.org/10.3109/9780203091715
Hsu MF, Lee KY, Lin TC, Liu WT, Ho SC. Subjective sleep quality and association with depression syndrome, chronic diseases and health-related physical fitness in the middle-aged and elderly. BMC Public health. 2021 Dec;21:1-9. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-10206-z
Jiang CH, Zhu F, Qin TT. Relationships between chronic diseases and depression among middle-aged and elderly people in China: a prospective study from CHARLS. Curr Med Sci. 2020 Oct;40(5):858-70. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11596-020-2270-5
How to Cite
Christian Journal for Global Health applies the Creative Commons Attribution License to all articles that we publish. Under this license, authors retain ownership of copyright for their articles or they can transfer copyright to their institution, but authors allow anyone without permission to copy, distribute, transmit, and/or adapt articles, even for commercial purposes so long as the original authors and Christian Journal for Global Health are appropriately cited.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.