Understanding the barriers of clean water access in urban slums of Kolkata, India
Introduction: Safe drinking water is scarce in Kolkata. Inadequate knowledge and poor practices of storing and cleaning drinking water can cause severe effects on the health of the population. There is a need to understand the current trend of attitudes and practices of individuals living in urban slums to reduce water borne diseases and mortality.
Methods: This pilot cross sectional study was conducted in Kolkata, India during June and July 2014. Five urban slums were selected conveniently based on proximity and cooperation from the community. A sample of 50 women was taken which represented 5 different sums, with a sample of 10 women taken from each slum.
Results: The majority (80%) of the participants said they regularly have enough water available to meet the needs of their household. Fifty-two percent of subjects received their water for drinking from a tap, hand pump, or time pump. Thirty percent had water pumped into their homes, and 18% purchased their water from a water truck. Fourteen percent said they did not treat their water because it was too time consuming, 40% said it was too much work, and 34% said it was not needed. Ninety percent said they felt it was important to clean their water, almost half (48%) thought their water was not clean, but only 42% used some method to clean their water. Many subjects (68%) stated they knew how to clean their water, but 66% were unaware that visible dirt is not an indicator of illness-causing bacteria in water.
Conclusions: More focus should be directed towards improving the awareness, knowledge, and attitudes of perceived susceptibility of clean water within slum communities in Kolkata, India.
Goli S, Arokiasamy P, Chattopadhayay A. Living and health conditions of selected cities in India: Setting priorities for the National Urban Health Mission. Cities [Internet]. June 2011 [cited 2014 July 18];28:461-469. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/science/article/pii/S0264275111000631. DOI:10.1016/j.cities.2011.05.006.
United Nations. Water for People Water for Life: The United Nations World Water Development Report. World Water Assessment Programme. 2003 [cited 2014 July 18]. Available from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0012/001297/129726e.pdf.
WHO/UNICEF. Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) update for 2014. Progress on drinking water and sanitation. May 2014 [cited 2014 August 20]. Available from: http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/publications/2014/jmp-report/en/.
Manna B, Nasrin D, Kanungo S, et al. Determinants of health care seeking for diarrheal illness in young children in urban slums of Kolkata, India. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. [Internet]. July 2013 [cited 2014 July 18];89(1):56-61. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3748502/?tool=pmcentrez&report=abstract. DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.12-0756.
Chatterjee A, Paily VP. Achieving Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 in India. BJOG [Internet]. 2011 [cited 2014 July 17];118(2):47–59. Available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/doi/10.1111/j.1471-0528.2011.03112.x/full. DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2011.03112.x.
Palit A, Batabyal P, Kanungo S, Sur D. In-house contamination of potable water in urban slum of Kolkata, India: a possible transmission route of diarrhea. Water and Science Technology [Internet]. February 2012 [cited 2014 July 18]:66(2);299-303. Cited in PubMed; PMID 22699333. DOI: 10.2166/wst.2012.177.
Gupta K, Arnold F, Lhungdim H. Health and Living Conditions in Eight Indian Cities. National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) India 2005-06. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare Government of India. August 2009 [cited 2014 July 17]. http://www.nfhsindia.org.
Qadri F, Svennerholm AM, Faruque ASG, Sack RB. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in developing countries: epidemiology, microbiology, clinical features, treatment, and prevention. Clinical Microbiology Reviews [Internet]. July 2005 [cited 2014 July 17]:18(3);465-483. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1195967/?tool=pmcentrez&report=abstract. DOI:10.1128/CMR.18.3.465–483.2005.
The World Bank. Data: India. 2013 [cited 2014 August 18]. http://data.worldbank.org/country/india.
Parliament of the Republic of India. The Slum Areas (Improvement and Clearance) Act. 1956 (Act No. 96 of 1956) [cited 2014 August 18].
Kundu, N. The case of Kolkata, India. Understanding slums: case studies for the Global Report on Human Settlements. UN-Habitat. Earthscan, London. 2003 [cited 2014 August 20];195-228. http://www.ucl.ac.uk/dpu-projects/Global_Report/cities/kolkata.htm.
Sur D, Sarkar BL, Manna B, Deen J, Datta S, Niyogi SK, et al. Epidemiological, microbiological & electron microscopic study of a cholera outbreak in a Kolkata slum community. Indian J Med Res [Internet]. January 2006 [cited 2014 July 18]:123;31-36. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16567865.
Roy KD, Thankur B, Konar TS, Chakrabarty SN. Rapid evaluation of water supply project feasibility in Kolkata, India. Drink. Water Eng. Sci [Internet]. March 2010 [cited 2014 July 18]:3;29–42. Available from: http://www.drink-water-eng-sci.net/3/29/2010/dwes-3-29-2010.pdf. DOI:10.5194/dwes-3-29-2010.
Fiebelkorn AP, Person B, Quick RE, Vindignid SM, Jhung M, Bowen A, et al. Systematic review of behavior change research on point-of-use water treatment interventions in countries categorized as low- to medium-development on the human development index. Social Science and Medicine [Internet]. August 2012 [cited 2014 July 17]:75(4);622-633. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu:2048/science/article/pii/S0277953612001815. DOI: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2012.02.011.
Joshi A, Prasad S, Kasav JB, Segan M, Singh AK. Water and sanitation hygiene knowledge attitude practice in urban slum settings. Global Journal of Health Science [Internet]. November 2013 [cited 2014 July 17];6(2):23-34. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24576362. DOI:10.5539/gjhs.v6n2p23.
Martin JH, Elmore AC. Water drinking attitudes and behaviors in Guatemala: an assessment and intervention. Journal of Rural and Tropical Public Health [Internet]. 2007 [cited 2014 June 27];6:54-60. http://www.jcu.edu.au/jrtph/vol/v06martin.pdf.
Kolkata Municipal Corporation. Water supply information sheet. https://www.kmcgov.in/KMCPortal/jsp/WaterSupply.jsp. [cited 2014 August 20].
Satapathy BK. Safe Drinking Water in Slums: From Water Coverage to Water Quality. Economic & Political Weekly [Internet]. June 2014 [cited 2014 August 9]:69(24);50-55. http://www.academia.edu/7288971/Safe_Drinking_Water_in_Slums_From_Water_Coverage_to_Water_Quality.
McKenzie D, Raya I. Urban water supply in India: status, reform options and possible lessons. Water Policy [Internet]. July 2009 [cited 2014 July 18];11(4):442-460. Available from: http://www.iwaponline.com/wp/01104/wp011040442.htm. DOI: 10.2I66/wp.2009.056.
Bartlett S. Water, sanitation and urban children: the need to go beyond “improved” provision. Environment & Urbanization [Internet]. October 2003 [cited 2014 August 9]:15(2);57-70. Available from: http://eau.sagepub.com/content/15/2/57.full.pdf. DOI: 10.1177/095624780301500220.
Guha S. Valuation of clean water supply by willingness to pay method in a developing nation: A case study in Calcutta, India. Journal of Young Investigators [Internet]. October 2007 [cited 2014 August 23]. http://www.jyi.org/issue/valuation-of-clean-water-supply-by-willingness-to-pay-method-in-a-developing-nation-a-case-study-in-calcutta-india/.
Christian Journal for Global Health applies the Creative Commons Attribution License to all articles that we publish. Under this license, authors retain ownership of copyright for their articles or they can transfer copyright to their institution, but authors allow anyone without permission to copy, distribute, transmit, and/or adapt articles, even for commercial purposes so long as the original authors and Christian Journal for Global Health are appropriately cited.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.