Calls for Papers

The Changing Landscape of Faith-based Hospitals

Christian hospitals and health systems have been central in the prmotion of health in deveoping countries. They have provided healthcare to the underserved and the unreached and trained cadres of health workers.  To this day faith-based hospitals remain an important part of the delivery of health care to populations in many low- and middle-income countries, complementing national health care systems.

As acknowledged in the Lancet series on faith-based healthcare in 2015, many of these facilities have focussed on providing services to hard-to-reach populations, to the poor and to fragile or weakened health systems. The authors also noted the role of mobilization and support of volunteers, and innovative fee structures and governance approaches.

However, the environment in which these hospitals exist has changed dramatically over the last few decades including the following:

  • Increasing government regulations and enforcement or expectations that they will integrate with or work under government control
  • An expectation that hospitals should offer specialty and subspecialty services supported by the necessary specialist staff
  • From less reliance on expatriate health workers, who in some places have been unable to obtain visas, to increased reliance on locally trained health workers for hospital staff and leadership
  • Increased options for faith-inspired healthcare workers to work in and to improve government hospitals and/or corporate hospitals
  • Changing financial models from dependence on foreign donations towards dependence on patient fees, government funds or even business models.

These faith-based healthcare institutions face additional challenges such as unpredictable financing, religious opposition, variable governance and priorities that may differ from national health systems.   Many mission hospitals have had difficulty in adapting to this changing environment and many have shut down.  For example, in India there were around 700 protestant hospitals at independence in 1947 and this has fallen to around 200 (personal correspondence, Vinod Shah).

With this background, we seek submissions that will fill this important gap in the literature, suggest better health outcomes and improve our understanding of faith-based hospitals by addressing the following:

  • The transition of past, current and future roles, and the uniqueness of these roles.
  • The relevance of faith-based hospitals to meet the SDGs, and their importance for world outreach objectives.
  • Redefining the purposes and practises of hospital facilitates; adaptation to include community-based programs, education, public health initiatives or sub-specialising.
  • What can be done to promote sustainability of Christian hospitals, the promotion of research evidence-based quality, chaplaincy, and the inclusiveness of provision of services to the poor.
  • The role of foreign entities in supporting existing hospitals in low and middle income countries.

Deadline for submissions for this theme issue 31 March 2020.

Reference:

Faith-based health-care. Lancet series. Available from: https://www.thelancet.com/series/faith-based-health-care

Olivier J, Tsimpo C, Gemignani R, Shojo M, Coulombe M, Dimmock F, et al. Understanding the roles of faith-based health-care providers in Africa: review of the evidence with a focus on magnitude, reach, cost, and satisfaction. Lancet 386(10005) 31 Oct 2015. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(15)60251-3 

Green A, Shaw J, Dimmock F, Conn C.  A shared mission? Changing relationships between government and church health services in Africa. Int J Health Plann Manage. 2002; 17: 333–353. https://doi.org/10.1002/hpm.685

Palmer JJ, Gilbert A, Choy M, Blanchet K. Circumventing 'free care' and 'shouting louder': using a health systems approach to study eye health system sustainability in government and mission facilities of north-west Tanzania. Health Res Policy Syst. 2016;14(1):68. Published 2016 Sep 9. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12961-016-0137-9

Focusing on the Formative First Years

In the continuum of the life cycle, the formative years are emerging as the most pivotal for human health, development, and flourishing.  Fostering maternal-child health, and in particular the first 1000 days from conception, are proving to have significant, measurable effects on health of the body, mind and society.  Protecting the vulnerable from toxic environments of violence, neglect, malnutrition, disease, pollution, and lack of health services has long-term effects on bonding, growth, learning, behavior, economic development, health and longevity.

Maternal nutrition and well-being, healthy timing and spacing of pregnancies, just family and community relationships, accessible pre-natal and peri-partum care, birth registration, maternal and paternal bonding, cognitive stimulation, spiritual nourishment, pre-school education, wholesome nutrition, hygiene and sanitation, vaccination, and timely health interventions are all essential approaches to human flourishing in the early stages of the life cycle.  Early childhood development (ECD) is considered, “the foundation for subsequent educational and vocational attainment at the individual level and the overall human capital and economic development at the population level.”*  The Lancet published a series on the high value of ECD from 2016-2018, and the Nurturing Care for ECD was launched in 2017. At the G20 Summit in September 2018 an initiative for ECD was launched. The time is right for strengthening evidence and programming for ECD. 

The Christian faith values human life, family, care for the vulnerable, nurture and investment in subsequent generations.  Many FBOs and local faith communities engage in advocacy and development for those in the early years, but more evidence is needed on the role of FBOs in enhancing ECD. We call for original research papers addressing subjects such as the following:

  • Practical and faith-based approaches to support families to provide nurturing care in the earliest years of life, informing effective policies, enabling health system, and taking relevant actions in other sectors.
  • Scaling up effective interventions, to mobilize faith resources, monitor progress, and achieve results for stronger social and economic benefits.
  • Addressing pre-conception maternal health, family planning, pre-natal care, dignified obstetric services, breast-feeding, and water, sanitation and hygiene.
  • Measuring the impact of community health workers and building capacity to improve maternal-child health outcomes.
  • Enhancing health systems for better perinatal and pediatric health services, vaccinations, monitoring indicators of brain development, etc.
  • Promoting spiritual health in families and communities focusing on parental competencies and the dignity, capacity and rights of young children.
  • Enhancing disability-inclusive approaches to care giving at the earliest life stages.

Papers on other topics are always welcome, but deadline for this special issue is 31 August 2019.

Resources

WHO & UNICEF. Nurturing Care for Early Childhood Development: a framework for Action and Results Engagement and Consultations August 2017 - May 2018 https://www.who.int/maternal_child_adolescent/child/ecd-framework-development.pdf?ua=1

G20 Initiative for Early Childhood Development. Building human capital to break the cycle of poverty and inequality. Sept 2018. Available from: https://www.ecdan.org/assets/g20_initiative_for_early_childhood_development.pdf

Grantham-McGregor S, Cheung YB, Cueto S, Glewwe Pl, Richter L, Strupp B, and the International Child Development Steering Group. Developmental potential in the first 5 years for children in developing countries. Lancet. 2007;369:60-70. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60032-4

*Olusanya BO. Priorities for early childhood development in low-income countries. J Dev Behav Pediatr 2011; 32: 476–81. https://doi.org/10.1097/DBP.0b013e318221b8c5

De Angulo JM, Losada LS.  The emerging health paradigm in the 21st century: The formative first 1000 days of life.  Christian Journal for Global Health. Nov 2016; 3(2):113-128. https://doi.org/10.15566/cjgh.v3i2.38

Bartkowski, John P. ; Xu, Xiaohe ; Levin, Martin L. Religion and child development: Evidence from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study. Social Science Research, 2008, Vol.37(1), pp.18-36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssresearch.2007.02.001

Grantham-McGregor s, Cheung YB, Cueto S, Glewwe P, Richter L, Strupp B, et.al. Developmental potential in the first 5 years for children in developing countries. Lancet. 6 January 2007; 369(9555): 60-70. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60032-4

Black MM, Walker SP, Fernald LCH, et al. Early childhood development coming of age: science through the life course. Lancet. 2017;389(10064):77–90. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31389-7

Britto PR, Lye SJ, Proulx K, et al. Nurturing care: promoting early childhood development. Lancet. 2017;389(10064):91–102. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31390-3

Stephenson J, Heslehurst N, Hall J, et al. Before the beginning: nutrition and lifestyle in the preconception period and its importance for future health. Lancet. 2018. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(18)30311-8

Richter LM, Desmond C, Behrman J, et al. G20's Initiative for Early Childhood Development. Lancet. 2019;392:2695-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(18)33058-7

Bhutta ZA, Black RE. Current and Future Challenges for Children Across the World. JAMA. 2019;321(13):1251–1252. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2019.1840