The Prevalence and Associated Factors for Anaemia in School Children in Bengaluru, Karnataka, India: A Cross-sectional Study


  • Safder Husain National Institute of Unani Medicine
  • Arish Mohammad Khan Sherwani NIUM (Rajive Gandhi University Of Health and Science)



anaemiia, prevalence, school children, school health, public health


Background and Objective: Anaemia is a common clinical condition that affects the majority of school aged children. Reduced resistance to disease, increased susceptibility to infection, impaired physical development, and poor school performance are all consequences of anaemia in this group. The present study was designed with the objective of estimating the prevalence of anaemia among school children in Bengaluru. This included identifying the associated factors or causes and consequences of anaemia.

Methods: A school based cross-sectional study was conducted among children in schools from 3rd to 8th standard in Bengaluru Urban North Division Karnataka State, India, over a period of one year. 250 children were selected using convenience sampling.

Results: The overall prevalence of anaemia among school going children was found to be 21.2%. Prevalence of anaemia was significant among variables like socioeconomic status, dietary habits, increased heart rate, breathlessness, lack of energy, dizziness, irregular menstrual cycles, jaundice, blood loss during menstruation, menstrual cycle pattern, pallor signs of palpebral conjunctiva, mucous membrane, and skin, splenomegaly and hepatomegaly, consumption of chicken, fish, citrus fruit, milk, Mizāj ‘Ām duration of menstrual flow, headache, poor wound healing, and chronic disease.  

Conclusion: The overall prevalence of anaemia in our study of school children in Bengaluru (21.2%) was lower than the prevalence in the data recently shown by NFHS-5. Prevalence of anaemia was highly significant among variables like low socioeconomic status, dietary deficiencies, blood loss, and chronic infections. There were also highly significant correlations with several clinical findings.

Author Biographies

Safder Husain, National Institute of Unani Medicine

MD Unani in Tahaffuzi wa Samaji Tib [Community Medicine (Unani)], National Institute of Unani Medicine, Bengaluru, India, Affiliated with Rajiv Gandhi University of Health and Science

Arish Mohammad Khan Sherwani, NIUM (Rajive Gandhi University Of Health and Science)

Professor and HOD, Tahaffuzi wa Samaji Tib [Community Medicine (Unani)], NIUM, Bengaluru, India


Britannica, T. Editors of Encyclopaedia (2020, December 15). Haemoglobin [Internet]. Encyclopedia Britannica. Available from:

Uppal N, Sharma A, Kukreja S. A study of prevalence of anemia in pediatric population in a tertiary care hospital in Amritsar. Int J Clin Biochem Res. 2019;6(3):396-400.

Park K. Text Book of Preventive and Social Medicine. 25th Edition. Jabalpur: Banarsidas Bhanot Publisher; 2019:280,677-87. [680,681,684,685,687]

Anonymous. National family health survey (NFHS-5)-State fact sheet Karnataka [Internet]. Mumbai: International Institute for Popular Ion Science, Ministry of health and family welfare; 2019-20. Available from 5%20State%20Factsheet%20Compendium_Phase-I.pdf

Gupta A, Lal PR, Sharma LK, Prakash S. Understanding the determinants of anaemia amongst Indian adolescents. Int J Health Sci Res. 2021;11(4):213-35. ijhsr.20210428

Chaparro CM, Suchdev PS. Anemia epidemiology, pathophysiology, and etiology in low-and middle-income countries. Annals New York Acad Sci. 2019 Aug;1450(1):15.

Anonymous. Technical handbook on anemia in adolescents [Internet]. Available from

Devi HS. Prevalence of anemia among Indian children of various age groups–a systematic review. J Advances Med Pharm Sci. 2019 Jun 17:1-6.

Ramesh S, Kumar D, Bagavandas M. Prevalence of anemia among school going adolescent girls and boys (10-18 years) in South India-a community based cross sectional study. Annals Romanian Soc Cell Biol. 2021 Jun 5;25(6):7842-7.

Bates I, McKew S, Sarkinfada F Anemia: a useful indicator of neglected disease burden and control. PLoS Med 2007;4(8): e231.

Raftery AT, Lim EK, Ostor AJ. Churchill's pocketbook of differential diagnosis e-book. Elsevier Health Sciences; 2014 Mar 18;26:423.

Singh Y, Gupta A, Yadav R. Incidence of anemia among hookworm infection in tertiary care hospital. Galore Int J Health Sci Res. 2019;4(4):72-5.

Prior JC. Very heavy menstrual flow [Internet]. Available from

Peterson P, Cornacchia MF. Anemia: pathophysiology, clinical features, and laboratory evaluation. Lab Med. 1999 Jul 1;30(7):463-7.

Mehta SP, Mehta NP, Joshi SR. PJ Mehta's practical medicine. The National Book Depot; 2013. p. 19,20,22,23,65,67,125.

Anonymous. Types of arrhythmia in children [Internet]. Available from

Kumar V, Abbas A, Aster J. Robbins and Cotran, Pathologic basis of disease: South Asia edition. Vol.1. New Delhi: Elsevier India; 2014: p. 1-29,630,652,633.

Anonymous. Dizziness [Internet]. Available from conditions/dizziness/symptoms causes/syc-20371787

Rakesh PS, George LS, Joy TM, George S, Renjini BA, Beena KV. Anemia among school children in Ernakulam district, Kerala, India. Indian J Hemato Blo. 2019 Jan;35(1):114-8.

Kumar T, Solanki S, Vadhera M, Joshi N. Analysis of incidence of anemia among school going children. J Adv Med Dental Sci Res. 2021 Apr;9(4).

Mutthayya S, Thankachan P, Zimmermann MB, Andersson M, Eilander A, Misquith D, et al. Low anemia prevalence in school-aged children in Bangalore, South India: possible effect of school health initiatives. E J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jul;61(7):865-9.

Kavthekar S, Kulkarni D, Kurane A, Chougule A. Association of BMI, socioeconomic status and menarche age with anemia in rural school going adolescent girls. Int J Pediatr Res. 2016;3(7):486-92. 2016.i07.04

Agrawal A, Shetty A, Jacob GP, Kamath A. Anemia among adolescents in a coastal district of India. Natl J Community Med.2018;9(6):396-401.

Tiwary SK, Sharan S, Singh BK, Sinha SK, Kumar R. Prevalence of anemia in hookworm infestation in children of slum areas in and around Dhanbad. Int J Contemp Med Res. 2018 Sept;5(9):11-13.

Wang W, Bourgeois T, Klima J, Berlan ED, Fischer AN, O'Brien SH. Iron deficiency and fatigue in adolescent females with heavy menstrual bleeding. Haemophilia. 2013 Mar;19(2):225-30.

Keshav K, Pathak SK, Kumar S, Kumar B. A case-control study to evaluate the precision of pallor in the diagnosis of anemia. European Journal of Molecular & Clinical Medicine (EJMCM).;7(10):2020.

Mazigo HD, Lwambo NJ, Mkoji GM, Laurent LM, Kweka EJ, Waihenya R. Anemia and organomegaly associated with parasitic infections among schoolchildren in Sengerema District, North-Western Tanzania. Tanz J Health Res. 2010;12(2):121-8.

Divyamol N, Sajna MV. Prevalence of anemia among adolescent girls in a rural area of Central Kerala, South India. Int JCommun Med Public Health. 2022 Feb;9(2):698.

El Menchawy I, El Hamdouchi A, El Kari K, Saeid N, Zahrou FE, Benajiba N, et al. Efficacy of multiple micronutrients fortified milk consumption on iron nutritional status in Moroccan schoolchildren. J Nutri Metab. 2015 Jan 1;1-8.

Ibn Sīnā al-Shaykh al-Ra’īs Abū ‘Alī al-Ḥusayn ibn ‘Abdullāh. Al-Qānūn fi’l Ṭibb (Urdu Translation by Ghulām Ḥasnayn Kintūrī). Vol.1. New Delhi: Idāra Kitābus Shifā’; 2010: p. 28-30,33-34,137,884-85,892-93.

Baghdādī Ibn Hubal. Kitāb al-Mukhtārāt fi’l Ṭibb (Urdu Translation by CCRUM). Part.I. New Delhi: CCRUM; 2005: p. 29.

Hussain MI, Hussain A. Concept of temperament in Unani system of medicine: a review. The Pharma Innova J. 2019;8(9):07-11.

Kantoori S.G.H H. Tariuma Qanoon vol 3rd part 2 (original author shaikh ali bin Abdullah ibn-e-sina) munshi Nawal Kishore Kanpur, 1303; p.47-53.

Kabeeruddin HM. Tariuma Kabeer Sharah-e-Asbab (vol 2nd). (Original author, Nafis Bin Euz Kirmani) Hikmat book depot. Hyderabad, 1950; p.669-688.

Verma, RS, Parveen S, Khan AL. The efficacy and safety of an Unani Pharma- copoeial Drug Sharbat-E- Faulad in cases of anemia. Hippocratic J Unani Med.2013, 8(3): 11-21.

Jurjani I, Zakhira Khwarzam Shahi.Vol.6. New Delhi: Idara Kitabus Shifa;2010. p.29-30,105,385,426,652.

Samarqandi N. molejaat sharah asbab (translation by Kabeeruddin H). Vol. 1. New Delhi: Idara Kitabus Shifa; 2009; p.560-3.

Azam HM. Akseer-e-Azam, Urdu translation by Hkm. Kabiruddin. New Delhi; Idara Kitab-us-Shifa, 2011; p.519-21




How to Cite

Husain, S., & Sherwani, A. M. K. (2023). The Prevalence and Associated Factors for Anaemia in School Children in Bengaluru, Karnataka, India: A Cross-sectional Study. Christian Journal for Global Health, 10(2), 22–36.